• Independent Research •


• 2013 •

Mahmoodi, N., Zareii, K., Mohagheghi, P., Eimani, M., & Rezaei-Pour, M. (2013). Evaluation of the effect of the oral motor interventions on reducing hospital stay in preterm infants. Bihdad, 2(3), 163-166.        

Saehoong, S., Daramas, T., & Pookboonmee, R. (2013). A systematic review of oral stimulation to enhance sucking and swallowing in preterm infants. Ramathibodi Nursing Journal, 19, 293-307. [SYSTEMATIC REVIEW]

• 2014 •

Rearkyai, S., Daramus, T. & Kongsaktrakul, C. (2014). Effect of oral stimulation on feeding efficiency in preterm infants. The Pediatric Journal, 21 (3), 17-23.

Xiao-li, Tang & Jiang-Ian, Yang (2014) Effect of oral motor intervention on premature infants with oral feeding difficulties. Journal of Nursing (Chinese), 13, 42-46.

• 2015 •

Tian, X., Yi, L., Zhang, L., Zhou, J., Ma, L., Ou, Y., … Song, G. (2015). Oral Motor intervention improved the oral feeding in preterm infants: Evidence based on a meta-analysis with trial sequential analysis. Medicine, 94(31), 1-10.

 doi: 10.1097/MD.0000000000001310 [META-ANALYSIS]

• 2016 •

Greene, Z., O’Donnell, C.P.F., & Walshe, M. (2016). Oral stimulation for promoting oral feeding in preterm infants. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, 9, 1-64.

 doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD009720.pub2 [SYSTEMATIC REVIEW]

Linlin, L., Jingli, C., & Guofeng, C. (2016). Effects of oral exercise intervention on breastfeeding of preterm infants after discharge. Journal of Nurses Training, 14, 1266-1269.

Li Linlin, Chen Jingli, Cui Guofeng, et al. (2016) Effects of oral feeding promotion project in preterm infants. Chinese Journal of Modern Nursing, 22(24), 3489-3493.

Osman, Atiat A., Ahmed, Eman S., Mohamed, Hend S., Hassanein, Farok E. & Brandon, Debra (2016). Oral motor intervention accelerates time to full oral feeding and discharge. International Journal of Advanced Nursing Studies, 5 (2), 228-233.

 doi: 10.14419/ijans.v5i2.6797

• 2017 •

Kamitsuka, M. D., Nervik, P. A., Nielsen, S. L., & Clark, R. H. (2017). Incidence of nasogastric and gastrostomy tube at discharge is reduced after implementing an oral feeding protocol in preterm (< 30 weeks) infants. American Journal of Perinatology, 34, 606-613.

 doi: 10.1055/s-0037-1601443

Kim, S.N., Kim, Y.A, Jeon, M.H., Kim, D.S. & Kim, H. I. (2017). A systematic review and meta-analysis of the effects of oral stimulation interventions on the transition from tube to oral feeding in premature infants. Journal of Korean Clinical Nursing Research, 23(2), 151-160.

 doi:  /10.22650/JKCNR.2017.23.2.151 [META-ANALYSIS]


• 2018 •

Arora, K. Goel, S, Manerkar,S. et al. (2018) Prefeeding oromotor stimulation program for improving oromotor function in preterm infants: A randomized controlled trial. Indian Pediatrics, 55 (8), 675-678.

Chailangka W, Daramas T, Kongsaktrakul C. (2018)  Effect of Expressed Breast Milk With Oral Stimulation On Feeding Efficiency in Preterm Infants. Ramathibodi Nursing Journal [Internet]. 24(1), 25-6.

Osman, Atiat (2018) Oral feeding readiness and premature infant outcomes. Journal of Neonatal Nursing

Available online Dec 8. 

 doi: 10.1016/j.jnn.2018.11.005

Thakker, P.A., Rohit, H.R., Das, R.B., Thakker, U.P & Singh, A. (2018) Effect of oral stimulation on feeding performance and weight gain in preterm neonates: A randomized controlled trial. Pediatrics and International Child Health.

 doi: 10.1080/20469047.2018.1435172

Zhang, L., Wang, Y., LE, Q., Wu, L., & Yu, J. (2018) Evidence-based nursing practice of oral movement intervention in premature infants. Chinese Nursing Management, 18(5), 701-705.

• 2019 •

Rhooms, L., Dow, K., Brandon, C., Zhao,G. & Fucile, S. (2019). Effect of unimodal and multimodal sensorimotor interventions on oral feeding outcomes in preterm infants: An evidence-based systematic review. Advances in Neonatal Care, 19 (1), E3-E20.

 doi: 10.1097/ANC.0000000000000546  [SYSTEMATIC REVIEW]

Calk, P. (2019) Best practices for oral motor stimulation to improve oral feeding in preterm infants: A systematic review. Annals of Physiotherapy & Occupational Therapy, 2(5). [SYSTEMATIC REVIEW]


• 2020•

Skanning, D., Carlsen, E., Brodsgaard, A., Kyhnaeb, A., Pedersen, M., Ravn, S., ... Kronborg, H. (2020) Randomised oral stimulation and exclusive breastfeeding duration in healthy premature infants. Acta Paediatrica, International Journal of Paediatrics


16 RCTs on PIOMI

1 fidelity study on PIOMI

2 meta-analysis & 4 Systematic Reviews that included PIOMI

Total:  23


"I wanted to express a very sincere thank you for sharing your clinical expertise and educator excellence with the NICU family here at Lehigh Valley Reilly Children’s Hospital in the Lehigh Valley. The seminar was refreshing, interesting and a valuable tool and strategy to offer our NICU population. The NICU  family inclusive of all the Nurses, Physicians and Therapists look forward to enriching and enhancing the lives of the neonatal population with the use of the PIOMI tool. WE all look forward to enriching our professional talents through continued communication and dialogue. A sincere thank you for your time energy and talent."

Brian J. Smith, PT, MHA

Team Lead Pediatric Service Line


Pediatrics and NBSC

LeHigh Valley Reilly Children's Hospital

  • LinkedIn - White Circle
  • Facebook - White Circle

© 2020 by Brenda Lessen Knoll